Natural renewable materials can play a big role in reducing the consumption of synthetic materials for environmental sustainability. Natural fiber-reinforced composites have attracted significant research and commercial importance due to their versatile characteristics and multi-dimensional applications. As the natural materials are easily rotten, flammable, and moisture absorbent, they require additional chemical modification for use in sustainable product development. In the present research, jute fibers were treated with rot-, fire-, and water-retardant chemicals and their corresponding polymer composites were fabricated using a compression molding technique. To identify the effects of the chemical treatments on the jute fiber and their polymeric composites, a Fourier transformed infrared radiation (FTIR) study was conducted and the results were analyzed. The presence of various chemicals in the post-treated fibers and the associated composites were identified through the FTIR analysis. The varying weight percentage of the chemicals used for treating the fibers affected the physio-mechanical properties of the fiber as well as their composites. From the FTIR analysis, it was concluded that crystallinity increased with the chemical concentration of the treatment which could be contributed to the improvement in their mechanical performance. This study provides valuable information for both academia and industry on the effect of various chemical treatments of the jute fiber for improved product development.