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Bacillus spp. as Bio-factories for Antifungal Secondary Metabolites: Innovation Beyond Whole Organism Formulations

May, 2022

Journal Name:

DOI: 10.1007/s00248-022-02044-2 move

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Several fungi act as parasites for crops causing huge annual crop losses at both pre- and post-harvest stages. For years, chemical fungicides were the solution; however, their wide use has caused environmental contamination and human health problems. For this reason, the use of biofungicides has been in practice as a green solution against fungal phytopathogens. In the context of a more sustainable agriculture, microbial biofungicides have the largest share among the commercial biocontrol products that are available in the market. Precisely, the genus Bacillus has been largely studied for the management of plant pathogenic fungi because they offer a chemically diverse arsenal of antifungal secondary metabolites, which have spawned a heightened industrial engrossment of it as a biopesticide. In this sense, it is indispensable to know the wide arsenal that Bacillus genus has to apply these products for sustainable agriculture. Having this idea in our minds, in this review, secondary metabolites from Bacillus having antifungal activity are chemically and structurally described giving details of their action against several phytopathogens. Knowing the current status of Bacillus secreted antifungals is the base for the goal to apply these in agriculture and it is addressed in depth in the second part of this review.